On February 9, 2021, China and representatives from 17 Central and Eastern European countries convened for the latest "17+1" summit. This collection of CSIS analysis explains the summit’s development and China’s activities in the region.

Will China’s ‘16+1’ Format Divide Europe?

This piece answers basic questions about the format's predecessor, the "16+1", including investment activity under the initiative and early European reactions here.

A Chinese World Order

Beneath the surface, China’s 16+1 format is fundamentally different from the multilateral practices and institutions it claims to uphold, Jonathan Hillman writes for the Washington Post.

The Western Balkans with Chinese Characteristics

China’s expanding economic footprint and political influence have deepened and widened under the initiative, with profound implications for the region’s economic development and long-term dependency. Read more here.

China’s 'Hub-and-Spoke' Strategy in the Balkans

This report, part of a two-year effort to track Chinese economic influence in the Western Balkans, draws from a new CSIS dataset to identify key trends, including China's geographic and sectoral priorities, low project completion rates, and an emerging second wave of digital investments. Read the full report here.

Becoming a Chinese Client State: The Case of Serbia

Serbia has become an anchor for a wide range of Chinese economic activity on Europe's periphery. This report, the second in a series, examines Serbia in greater detail to shed more light on China’s political and economic objectives, its mechanisms for influence, and the implications of its activities, including a second wave of digital infrastructure projects. Read the full report here.